The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014

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The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2014 is awarded by Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano, and Shuji Nakamura

for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources

efficiency

This year’s Nobel Laureates are rewarded for having invented a new energy-efficient and environment-friendly light source – the blue light-emitting diode (LED). In the spirit of Alfred Nobel the Prize rewards an invention of greatest benefit to mankind; using blue LEDs, white light can be created in a new way. With the advent of LED lamps we now have more long-lasting and more efficient alternatives to older light sources.

Read the press release

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014

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The first Nobel Prize of 2014 in Physiology or Medicine is awarded by John O’Keefe and May‐Britt and Edvard I. Moser

for thier discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain

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From the press release (pdf):

How do we know where we are? How can we find the way from one place to another? And how can we store this information in such a way that we can immediately find the way the next time we trace the same path? This year´s Nobel Laureates have discovered a positioning system, an “inner GPS” in the brain that makes it possible to orient ourselves in space, demonstrating a cellular basis for higher cognitive function.
In 1971, John O´Keefe discovered the first component of this positioning system. He found that a type of nerve cell in an area of the brain called the hippocampus that was always activated when a rat was at a certain place in a room. Other nerve cells were activated when the rat was at other places. O´Keefe concluded that these “place cells” formed a map of the room.
More than three decades later, in 2005, May-Britt and Edvard Moser discovered another key component of the brain’s positioning system. They identified another type of nerve cell, which they called “grid cells”, that generate a coordinate system and allow for precise positioning and pathfinding. Their subsequent research showed how place and grid cells make it possible to determine position and to navigate.
The discoveries of John O´Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser have solved a problem that has occupied philosophers and scientists for centuries – how does the brain create a map of the space surrounding us and how can we navigate our way through a complex environment?

Did you know? Nobel Prize in Chemistry

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Facts and figures in Nobel Prize in Chemistry:

104 Nobel Prizes in Chemistry have been awarded between 1901 and 2012.

63 Chemistry Prizes have been given to one Laureate only.

4 women have been awarded the Chemistry Prize so far.

1 person, Frederick Sanger, has been awarded the Chemistry Prize twice, in 1958 and in 1980.

35 years was the age of the youngest Chemistry Laureate ever, Frédéric Joliot, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1935.

85 years was the age of the oldest Chemistry Laureate, John B. Fenn, when he was awarded the Chemistry Prize in 2002.

57 is the average age of the Nobel Laureates in Chemistry the year they were awarded the prize.

(continue on http://www.nobelprize.org)

Did you know? Nobel Prize in Physics

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Facts and figures in Nobel Prize in Physics:

106 Nobel Prizes in Physics have been awarded between 1901-2012.

47 Physics Prizes have been given to one Laureate only.

2 women have been awarded the Physics Prize so far.

1 person, John Bardeen, has been awarded the Physics Prize twice.

25 years was the age of the youngest Physics Laureate ever, Lawrence Bragg, when he was awarded the 1915 Physics Prize together with his father.

55 is the average age of the Physics Laureates the year they were awarded the prize.

(continue on www.nobelprize.org)

Did you know? Nobel Prize in Medicine

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Facts and figures in Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine:

201 persons have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine between 1901 and 2012.

38 Medicine Prizes have been given to one Laureate only.

10 women have been awarded the Medicine Prize so far.

32 years was the age of the youngest Medicine Laureate ever, Frederick G. Banting, who was awarded the 1923 Medicine Prize for the discovery of insulin.

87 years was the age of the oldest Medicine Laureate ever, Peyton Rous, when he was awarded the Medicine Prize in 1966.

57 is the average age of the Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine the year they were awarded the prize.

(continue on www.nobelprize.org)

Facts and things about Nobel Prize 2011 in Medicine

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The winners of Nobel Prize 2001 in Medicine or Physiology are:

Bruce Beutler and Jules Hoffman

for they discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity

and Ralph Steinman

for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity

On the Nobel Prize internet site we can read the key publications of the Nobel:

Poltorak A, He X, Smirnova I, Liu MY, Van Huffel C, Du X, Birdwell D, Alejos E, Silva M, Galanos C, Freudenberg M, Ricciardi-Castagnoli P, Layton B, Beutler B. Defective LPS signaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice: Mutations in Tlr4 gene. Science 1998;282:2085-2088.
Lemaitre B, Nicolas E, Michaut L, Reichhart JM, Hoffmann JA. The dorsoventral regulatory gene cassette spätzle/Toll/cactus controls the potent antifungal response in drosophila adults. Cell 1996;86:973-983.
Steinman RM, Cohn ZA. Identification of a novel cell type in peripheral lymphoid organs of mice. J Exp Med 1973;137:1142-1162.
Steinman RM, Witmer MD. Lymphoid dendritic cells are potent stimulators of the primary mixed leukocyte reaction in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1978;75:5132-5136.
Schuler G, Steinman RM. Murine epidermal Langerhans cells mature into potent immunostimulatory dendritic cells in vitro. J Exp Med 1985;161:526-546.